Python Framework for End-to-End UI Testing with Selenium WebDriver and pytest.
- Python methods to enhance WebDriver.
- Can run tests on web & mobile browsers.
- Command-line options for test flexibility.
- Can do parallel testing on Selenium Grid.
- Includes tools for debugging tests easily.
- Supports Azure, GCP, TravisCI, & Docker.
- A logging system that takes screenshots.
- Includes a tool for building website tours.
- Lots of examples to help you get started.
- Click here to see a longer list of features.
(Watch examples/my_first_test.py run in Demo Mode:)
cd examples/ pytest my_first_test.py --demo
You’ll need Python on your System PATH.
python -m easy_install -U pip
Setup a Virtual Environment: (Optional)
python dependencies between projects, use a Virtual Environment. See the ReadMe for instructions. (You can also read the official tutorial on virtual environments from python.org)
pip install seleniumbase
-Uto upgrade an installation.
--force-reinstallfor a clean install.
You can also install seleniumbase from a
git clone https://github.com/seleniumbase/SeleniumBase.git cd SeleniumBase/ pip install -r requirements.txt python setup.py install
If multiple versions of Python are installed, be specific (E.g. use
python3 instead of
Download a webdriver:
SeleniumBase can download a webdriver to the seleniumbase/drivers folder with the
seleniumbase install chromedriver
- You need a different webdriver for each web browser you want to run automation on:
operadriverfor Opera, and
iedriverfor Internet Explorer.
- If you have the latest version of Chrome installed, get the latest chromedriver (otherwise it defaults to chromedriver 2.44 for compatibility reasons):
seleniumbase install chromedriver latest
Run a test on Chrome:
cd examples/ pytest my_first_test.py
- Chrome is the default browser if not specified with
- On Linux
--headlessis the default behavior (running with no GUI). You can also run in headless mode on any OS. If your Linux machine has a GUI and you want to see the web browser as tests run, add
Check out my_first_test.py to see what a simple test looks like:
- By default, CSS Selectors are used for finding page elements.
- Here are some common SeleniumBase methods you might find in tests:
For the complete list of SeleniumBase methods, see: help_docs/method_summary.md
Automatic WebDriver abilities:
SeleniumBase automatically handles common WebDriver actions such as spinning up web browsers and saving screenshots during test failures. (Read more about customizing test runs.)
SeleniumBase uses simple syntax for commands, such as:
The same command with regular WebDriver is very messy: (And it doesn’t include SeleniumBase smart-waiting.)
self.driver.find_element_by_css_selector("input").clear() # Not always needed self.driver.find_element_by_css_selector("input").send_keys("dogs") self.driver.find_element_by_css_selector("input").submit()
(You can still use
self.driver in your code.)
Run tests with
nosetests in any browser:
(Using pytest is recommended. Chrome is the default browser.)
pytest my_first_test.py --browser=chrome nosetests test_suite.py --browser=firefox
All Python methods that start with
test_ will automatically be run when using
nosetests on a Python file, (or on folders containing Python files). You can also be more specific on what to run within a file by using the following: (Note that the syntax is different for pytest vs nosetests.)
pytest [FILE_NAME].py::[CLASS_NAME]::[METHOD_NAME] nosetests [FILE_NAME].py:[CLASS_NAME].[METHOD_NAME]
No more flaky tests:
SeleniumBase methods automatically wait for page elements to finish loading before interacting with them (up to a timeout limit). This means you no longer need random
time.sleep() statements in your scripts.
Automated/manual hybrid mode:
SeleniumBase includes a solution called MasterQA, which speeds up manual testing by having automation perform all the browser actions while the manual tester handles validatation.
For a full list of SeleniumBase features, Click Here.
Here’s how to run the example script on various web browsers:
First install a webdriver for each browser you intend to use:
seleniumbase install chromedriver seleniumbase install geckodriver seleniumbase install edgedriver seleniumbase install iedriver seleniumbase install operadriver
Next, choose between pytest and nosetests test runners. (Mostly interchangeable.)
cd examples/ pytest my_first_test.py --browser=chrome nosetests my_first_test.py --browser=firefox
(If no browser is specified, Chrome is used by default.) With Pytest, a green dot means a test passed. An “F” means a test failed.
Use Demo Mode to help you see what tests are asserting.
If the example test is moving too fast for your eyes, you can run it in Demo Mode by adding
--demo on the command-line, which pauses the browser briefly between actions, highlights page elements being acted on, and lets you know what test assertions are happening in real time:
pytest my_first_test.py --demo
Pytest includes test discovery. If you don’t specify a specific file or folder to run from,
pytest will search all subdirectories automatically for tests to run based on the following matching criteria:
Python filenames that start with
test_ or end with
Python methods that start with
The Python class name can be anything since SeleniumBase’s
BaseCase class inherits from the
You can see which tests are getting discovered by
pytest by using:
pytest --collect-only -q
You can use the following in your scripts to help you debug issues: (If using ipdb, make sure you add “-s” to command-line options unless already in pytest.ini)
import time; time.sleep(5) # Makes the test wait and do nothing for 5 seconds. import ipdb; ipdb.set_trace() # Enter debugging mode. n = next, c = continue, s = step. import pytest; pytest.set_trace() # Enter debugging mode. n = next, c = continue, s = step.
To pause an active test that throws an exception or error, add
pytest my_first_test.py --pdb -s
The code above will leave your browser window open in case there’s a failure. (ipdb commands: ‘n’, ‘c’, ‘s’ => next, continue, step).
Here are some other useful command-line options that come with Pytest:
-v # Prints the full test name for each test. -q # Prints fewer details in the console output when running tests. -x # Stop running the tests after the first failure is reached. --html=report.html # Creates a detailed pytest-html report after tests finish. --collect-only # Show what tests would get run without actually running them. -s # See print statements. (Should be on by default with pytest.ini present.) -n=NUM # Multithread the tests using that many threads. (Speed up test runs!)
SeleniumBase provides additional Pytest command-line options for tests:
(For more details, see the full list of command-line options here.)
During test failures, logs and screenshots from the most recent test run will get saved to the
latest_logs/ folder. Those logs will get moved to
archived_logs/ if you add –archive_logs to command-line options, or have ARCHIVE_EXISTING_LOGS set to True in settings.py, otherwise log files with be cleaned up at the start of the next test run. The
test_suite.py collection contains tests that fail on purpose so that you can see how logging works.
cd examples/ pytest test_suite.py --browser=chrome pytest test_suite.py --browser=firefox
An easy way to override seleniumbase/config/settings.py is by using a custom settings file.
Here’s the command-line option to add to tests: (See examples/custom_settings.py)
(Settings include default timeout values, a two-factor auth key, DB credentials, S3 credentials, and other important settings used by tests.)
To pass additional data from the command-line to tests, add
Now inside your tests, you can use
self.data to access that.
Test Directory Customization:
For running tests outside of the SeleniumBase repo with Pytest, you’ll want a copy of pytest.ini on the root folder. For running tests outside of the SeleniumBase repo with Nosetests, you’ll want a copy of setup.cfg on the root folder. (Subfolders should include a blank
__init__.py file.) These files specify default configuration details for tests. (For nosetest runs, you can also specify a .cfg file by using
nosetests [MY_TEST].py --config=[MY_CONFIG].cfg)
As a shortcut, you’ll be able to run
seleniumbase mkdir [DIRECTORY_NAME] to create a new folder that already contains necessary files and some example tests that you can run. Example:
seleniumbase mkdir ui_tests cd ui_tests/ pytest my_first_test.py
Logging / Results from Failing Tests:
Let’s try an example of a test that fails:
""" test_fail.py """ from seleniumbase import BaseCase class MyTestClass(BaseCase): def test_find_army_of_robots_on_xkcd_desert_island(self): self.open("https://xkcd.com/731/") self.assert_element("div#ARMY_OF_ROBOTS", timeout=1) # This should fail
You can run it from the
examples folder like this:
You’ll notice that a logs folder, “latest_logs”, was created to hold information about the failing test, and screenshots. During test runs, past results get moved to the archived_logs folder if you have ARCHIVE_EXISTING_LOGS set to True in settings.py, or if your run tests with
--archive-logs. If you choose not to archive existing logs, they will be deleted and replaced by the logs of the latest test run.
Creating Visual Test Suite Reports:
(NOTE: Several command-line args are different for Pytest vs Nosetests)
--html=report.html gives you a fancy report of the name specified after your test suite completes.
pytest test_suite.py --html=report.html
You can also use
--junit-xml=report.xml to get an xml report instead. Jenkins can use this file to display better reporting for your tests.
pytest test_suite.py --junit-xml=report.xml
--report option gives you a fancy report after your test suite completes.
nosetests test_suite.py --report
(NOTE: You can add
--show-report to immediately display Nosetest reports after the test suite completes. Only use
--show-report when running tests locally because it pauses the test run.)
Using a Proxy Server:
If you wish to use a proxy server for your browser tests (Chrome and Firefox only), you can add
--proxy=IP_ADDRESS:PORT as an argument on the command-line.
pytest proxy_test.py --proxy=IP_ADDRESS:PORT
If the proxy server that you wish to use requires authentication, you can do the following (Chrome only):
pytest proxy_test.py --proxy=USERNAME:PASSWORD@IP_ADDRESS:PORT
To make things easier, you can add your frequently-used proxies to PROXY_LIST in proxy_list.py, and then use
--proxy=KEY_FROM_PROXY_LIST to use the IP_ADDRESS:PORT of that key.
pytest proxy_test.py --proxy=proxy1
Changing the User-Agent:
If you wish to change the User-Agent for your browser tests (Chrome and Firefox only), you can add
--agent="USER AGENT STRING" as an argument on the command-line.
pytest user_agent_test.py --agent="Mozilla/5.0 (Nintendo 3DS; U; ; en) Version/1.7412.EU"
Building Guided Tours for Websites:
Learn about SeleniumBase Interactive Walkthroughs (in the
examples/tour_examples folder). It’s great for prototyping a website onboarding experience.
Production Environments & Integrations:
Here are some things you can do to setup a production environment for your testing:
You can setup a Jenkins build server for running tests at regular intervals. For a real-world Jenkins example of headless browser automation in action, check out the SeleniumBase Jenkins example on Azure or the SeleniumBase Jenkins example on Google Cloud.
You can use the Selenium Grid to scale your testing by distributing tests on several machines with parallel execution. To do this, check out the SeleniumBase selenium_grid folder, which should have everything you need, including the Selenium Grid ReadMe, which will help you get started.
If you use Slack, you can easily have your Jenkins jobs display results there by using the Jenkins Slack Plugin. Another way to send messages from your tests to Slack is by using Slack’s Incoming Webhooks API.
If you’re using AWS, you can setup an Amazon S3 account for saving log files and screenshots from your tests. To activate this feature, modify settings.py with connection details in the S3 section, and add “
--with-s3-logging” on the command-line when running your tests.
Here’s an example of running tests with additional features enabled:
pytest [YOUR_TEST_FILE].py --with-db-reporting --with-s3-logging
Detailed Method Specifications and Examples:
Navigating to a web page (and related commands)
self.open("https://xkcd.com/378/") # This method opens the specified page. self.go_back() # This method navigates the browser to the previous page. self.go_forward() # This method navigates the browser forward in history. self.refresh_page() # This method reloads the current page. self.get_current_url() # This method returns the current page URL. self.get_page_source() # This method returns the current page source.
ProTip™: You may need to use the get_page_source() method along with Python’s find() command to parse through the source to find something that Selenium wouldn’t be able to. (You may want to brush up on your Python programming skills for that.)
source = self.get_page_source() head_open_tag = source.find('<head>') head_close_tag = source.find('</head>', head_open_tag) everything_inside_head = source[head_open_tag+len('<head>'):head_close_tag]
To click an element on the page:
ProTip™: In most web browsers, you can right-click on a page and select
Inspect Element to see the CSS selector details that you’ll need to create your own scripts.
self.update_text(selector, text) # updates the text from the specified element with the specified value. An exception is raised if the element is missing or if the text field is not editable. Example:
You can also use self.add_text() or the WebDriver .send_keys() command, but those won’t clear the text box first if there’s already text inside. If you want to type in special keys, that’s easy too. Here’s an example:
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys self.find_element("textarea").send_keys(Keys.SPACE + Keys.BACK_SPACE + '\n') # The backspace should cancel out the space, leaving you with the newline
Getting the text from an element on a page
text = self.get_text("header h2")
Getting the attribute value from an element on a page
attribute = self.get_attribute("#comic img", "title")
Asserting existance of an element on a page within some number of seconds:
(NOTE: You can also use:
Asserting visibility of an element on a page within some number of seconds:
(NOTE: The short versions of this are
self.assert_element(ELEMENT). The find_element() version returns the element)
Since the line above returns the element, you can combine that with .click() as shown below:
self.find_element("a.my_class", timeout=5).click() # But you're better off using the following statement, which does the same thing: self.click("a.my_class") # DO IT THIS WAY!
ProTip™: You can use dots to signify class names (Ex:
div.class_name) as a simplified version of
div[class="class_name"] within a CSS selector.
You can also use
*= to search for any partial value in a CSS selector as shown below:
Asserting visibility of text inside an element on a page within some number of seconds:
self.assert_text("Make it so!", "div#trek div.picard div.quotes") self.assert_text("Tea. Earl Grey. Hot.", "div#trek div.picard div.quotes", timeout=3)
self.find_text(TEXT, ELEMENT) and
self.wait_for_text(TEXT, ELEMENT) also do this. For backwords compatibility, older method names were kept, but the default timeout may be different.)
self.assert_true(myvar1 == something) self.assert_equal(var1, var2)
Useful Conditional Statements (with creative examples in action)
is_element_visible(selector) # is an element visible on a page
if self.is_element_visible('div#warning'): print("Red Alert: Something bad might be happening!")
is_element_present(selector) # is an element present on a page
if self.is_element_present('div#top_secret img.tracking_cookie'): self.contact_cookie_monster() # Not a real SeleniumBase method else: current_url = self.get_current_url() self.contact_the_nsa(url=current_url, message="Dark Zone Found") # Not a real SeleniumBase method
def is_there_a_cloaked_klingon_ship_on_this_page(): if self.is_element_present("div.ships div.klingon"): return not self.is_element_visible("div.ships div.klingon") return False
is_text_visible(text, selector) # is text visible on a page
def get_mirror_universe_captain_picard_superbowl_ad(superbowl_year): selector = "div.superbowl_%s div.commercials div.transcript div.picard" % superbowl_year if self.is_text_visible("For the Love of Marketing and Earl Grey Tea!", selector): return "Picard HubSpot Superbowl Ad 2015" elif self.is_text_visible("Delivery Drones... Engage", selector): return "Picard Amazon Superbowl Ad 2015" elif self.is_text_visible("Bing it on Screen!", selector): return "Picard Microsoft Superbowl Ad 2015" elif self.is_text_visible("OK Glass, Make it So!", selector): return "Picard Google Superbowl Ad 2015" elif self.is_text_visible("Number One, I've Never Seen Anything Like It.", selector): return "Picard Tesla Superbowl Ad 2015" elif self.is_text_visible("""With the first link, the chain is forged. The first speech censored, the first thought forbidden, the first freedom denied, chains us all irrevocably.""", selector): return "Picard Wikimedia Superbowl Ad 2015" elif self.is_text_visible("Let us make sure history never forgets the name ... Facebook", selector): return "Picard Facebook Superbowl Ad 2015" else: raise Exception("Reports of my assimilation are greatly exaggerated.")
What if your test opens up a new tab/window and now you have more than one page? No problem. You need to specify which one you currently want Selenium to use. Switching between tabs/windows is easy:
self.switch_to_window(1) # This switches to the new tab (0 is the first one)
ProTip™: iFrames follow the same principle as new windows - you need to specify the iFrame if you want to take action on something in there
self.switch_to_frame('ContentManagerTextBody_ifr') # Now you can act inside the iFrame # .... Do something cool (here) self.switch_to_default_content() # Exit the iFrame when you're done
Handle Pop-Up Alerts
What if your test makes an alert pop up in your browser? No problem. You need to switch to it and either accept it or dismiss it:
If you’re not sure whether there’s an alert before trying to accept or dismiss it, one way to handle that is to wrap your alert-handling code in a try/except block. Other methods such as .text and .send_keys() will also work with alerts.
Executing Custom jQuery Scripts:
It’s OK if you want to use jQuery on a page that doesn’t have it loaded yet. To do so, run the following command first:
Some websites have a restrictive Content Security Policy to prevent users from loading jQuery and other external libraries onto their websites. If you need to use jQuery or another JS library on such a website, add
--disable_csp on the command-line.
Here are some examples of using jQuery in your scripts:
self.execute_script('jQuery, window.scrollTo(0, 600)') # Scrolling the page self.execute_script("jQuery('#annoying-widget').hide()") # Hiding elements on a page self.execute_script("jQuery('#hidden-widget').show(0)") # Showing hidden elements on a page self.execute_script("jQuery('#annoying-button a').remove()") # Removing elements on a page self.execute_script("jQuery('%s').mouseover()" % (mouse_over_item)) # Mouse-over elements on a page self.execute_script("jQuery('input#the_id').val('my_text')") # Fast text input on a page self.execute_script("jQuery('div#dropdown a.link').click()") # Click elements on a page self.execute_script("return jQuery('div#amazing').text") # Returns the css "text" of the element given self.execute_script("return jQuery('textarea').value") # Returns the css "value" of the 3rd textarea element on the page
start_page = "https://xkcd.com/465/" destination_page = "https://github.com/seleniumbase/SeleniumBase" self.open(start_page) referral_link = '''<a class='analytics test' href='%s'>Free-Referral Button!</a>''' % destination_page self.execute_script('''document.body.innerHTML = \"%s\"''' % referral_link) self.click("a.analytics") # Clicks the generated button
(Due to popular demand, this traffic generation example has been baked into SeleniumBase with the
self.generate_referral(start_page, end_page) and the
self.generate_traffic(start_page, end_page, loops) methods.)
Using delayed asserts:
Let’s say you want to verify multiple different elements on a web page in a single test, but you don’t want the test to fail until you verified several elements at once so that you don’t have to rerun the test to find more missing elements on the same page. That’s where delayed asserts come in. Here’s the example:
from seleniumbase import BaseCase class MyTestClass(BaseCase): def test_delayed_asserts(self): self.open('https://xkcd.com/993/') self.wait_for_element('#comic') self.delayed_assert_element('img[alt="Brand Identity"]') self.delayed_assert_element('img[alt="Rocket Ship"]') # Will Fail self.delayed_assert_element('#comicmap') self.delayed_assert_text('Fake Item', '#middleContainer') # Will Fail self.delayed_assert_text('Random', '#middleContainer') self.delayed_assert_element('a[name="Super Fake !!!"]') # Will Fail self.process_delayed_asserts()
delayed_assert_text() will save any exceptions that would be raised.
To flush out all the failed delayed asserts into a single exception, make sure to call
self.process_delayed_asserts() at the end of your test method. If your test hits multiple pages, you can call
self.process_delayed_asserts() at the end of all your delayed asserts for a single page. This way, the screenshot from your log file will have the location where the delayed asserts were made.
Accessing raw WebDriver
If you need access to any commands that come with standard WebDriver, you can call them directly like this:
self.driver.delete_all_cookies() capabilities = self.driver.capabilities self.driver.find_elements_by_partial_link_text("GitHub")
(In general, you’ll want to use the SeleniumBase versions of methods when available.)
Retrying failing tests automatically
You can use
--reruns NUM to retry failing tests that many times. Use
--reruns-delay SECONDS to wait that many seconds between retries. Example:
pytest --reruns 5 --reruns-delay 1
Additionally, you can use the
@retry_on_exception() decorator to specifically retry failing methods. (First import:
from seleniumbase import decorators) To learn more about SeleniumBase decorators, click here.
Congratulations on getting started with SeleniumBase!
If you see something, say something!